The paving process

The paving process

Foundation - must be stable, free from decayable materials, and able to safely transfer the load from the surface through the base course.

Base course - distributes the load taken by the clinker layer and carries away rain water.

Sub-crust - in the form of fine-grained gravel or coarse-grained washed sand, constituting a protective layer for the clinker (prevents the pavement from damage due to any undesirable stabilization of the ground) and simultaneously used to ensure the required downgrade.

Clinker layer - a surface resistant to abrasion, made from paving bricks of various colours, formats and shapes.

STEP 1   Preparation of a coarse-grained layer
Materials and tools:
grader, shovel, compactor.
A coarse-grained layer is made of soil free from unstable material. It is generally enough to level and compact the surface in preparation.  
STEP 2   Base course preparation
Materials and tools:
mixture of minerals of grain coarseness of 0-45 mm, shovel, compactor, level line, rod, measure, strings.

The base course distributes the clinker surface load over the layers located below and the foundation. The base course must let the water that enters through the gaps between the paving bricks and carry it away. The base course is usually made from a mixture of minerals and compacted in layers with a downgrade of approx. 1.5-2%. Such a layer must be at least 10 cm thick.
Making the first part of the base course   Measuring the incline with a level line and rod   Marking the downgrade with strings
Compacting each layer of the mineral mixture with a compactor   Adding other parts of the base course according to the downgrade marked with strings   Final compacting of the base course with a 1.5 - 2.0% downgrade
STEP 3   Preparation of side framing
Materials and tools:
mortar, clinker paving bricks, rod, trowel, putty, vibrating compactor, level line.

The side framing prevents the clinker paving bricks from moving while they are being laid and used. Paving blocks used to form the edge are laid on a cement mortar and reinforced from the outside with a layer of mortar. In order to avoid frequent cutting of the clinker, it helps to determine the distance between the edge and, for example, the house wall by laying a row of the clinker blocks with a 3-5 mm joint. The height of the clinker layer above the base course is calculated by adding the chosen clinker thickness to the sub-crust thickness (approx. 3 cm). The mortar foundation must be appropriately adjusted to the base course layer, with a downgrade of approx. 1.5-2.0%.
Laying the clinker in order to determine the distance between the edge and the house wall   Placing the sub-crust under the framing of paving bricks from the side of the building   Laying the framing in the form of granite blocks from the side of the building
Laying the side framing in the form of granite blocks   Placing the guide for the clinker block thickness lower, relatively, than the ready side framing    

STEP 4   Sub-crust preparation
Materials and tools:
0-5 mm course-grained sand (free from substances that might cause bloom), guide, strings, measure, shovel, scrapers, vibrating compactor.

A sub-crust (sand of 0-5 mm grain coarseness) is created within the closed side framing. The amount of material required can be calculated assuming that the thickness of this layer after compacting will not exceed 3 cm. The surface of the sub-crust is completely flattened between the stencils. These stencils are pipes that are placed so that their downgrade from the house to the edge or garden is approx. 1.5-2%. Simultaneously you must ensure that the sub-crust layer is placed deep enough for the clinker to stand out a little over the framing. In this way rain water may flow freely into the garden. Finally, the sub-crust must be compacted.
Placing fine-grained gravel or coarse-grained washed sand on the sub-crust (0 - 5 grain size).   Even distribution of the sub-crust   Levelling the sub-crust between two guides
Removing the guides after the levelling of the sub-crust   Filling the sub-crust after the removal of the guides   Compacting the sub-crust
STEP 5   Laying clinker paving bricks
Materials and tools:
clinker paving bricks, 0-5 mm coarse-grained sand, strings, rod, abrasive-cutting machine or diamond saw, broom, rubber hose, vibrating compactor with a rubber cover.

Clinker paving bricks should be laid in a way that mixes bricks from different pallets in order to obtain a natural play of colours. You should start laying from the reinforced rim (side edge, walls, and steps) and first lay a couple of rows or a small area according to the selected pattern. In this way you will form a module, which, by means of strings, can be transferred onto the remaining area. Strings make it easier to mark the joints while laying further paving bricks. You must make sure that the same gap width, of at least 3-5 mm, is retained. In order to prevent the clinker from moving during work, it is recommended to fill the gaps with coarse-grained sand while laying the bricks. Smaller pieces must be cut with an abrasive-cutting machine or diamond saw. Before compacting the ready surface with a compactor with a rubber or neoprene protective plate, the joints must be filled with sand (0-2 mm). After compacting, the joints must be "closed" with coarse-grained sand.
Ready sub-crust inside the framing   Laying the first row of clinker   Laying other rows of clinker
Laid clinker floor with brick halves missing   Cutting suitable pieces with an abrasive-cutting machine or diamond saw   Filling the joints with suitably cut bricks
Sweeping coarse-grained sand into the open gaps   Filling the gaps with sand using water and a broom   Compacting the paved surface by means of a compactor with a rubber plate, from the edge towards the centre.
Prepared and clean surface